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April 29, 2015

To all those working with wild birds etc.,


From:   Al Dam, Provincial Poultry Specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. (OMAFRA). 


I have been working with Dale Smith at the University of Guelph dealing with the H5N2 Avian Influenza situation in Ontario.  She has helped with the creation of these two Wild Bird Advisories from OMAFRA for your groups.  There are two, targeted to people that have interactions with wild birds. One is  general  and the other is targeted to those that work with wild birds and commercial poultry operations. 


Please distribute as appropriate and if you have any questions, feel free to contact myself or Dale.

(See the two links below to download the PDF AI protocols) 




Al Dam

Provincial Poultry Specialist

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

Room 4841, Department of Pathobiology

Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph

Guelph, Ontario Canada N1G 2W1

Office: 519-824-4120 x54326

Bringing the Resources of the World to Rural Ontario


Enhanced Avian Influenza Biosecurity Advisory for People Working With Wild Birds, Wild Bird Habitats and Domestic Poultry



General Avian Influenza Biosecurity Advisory for People Working with Wild birds and Wild Bird Habitat





October 1, 2013


A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada




Copyright © 2013 by the author(s). Published here under license by The Resilience Alliance.

The following is the established format for referencing this article:


Calvert, A. M., C. A. Bishop, R. D. Elliot, E. A. Krebs, T. M. Kydd, C. S. Machtans, and G. J. Robertson. 2013. A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada . Avian Conservation and Ecology XX(YY): ZZ.


[online] URL: http://www.aceeco.org/volXX/issYY/artZZ/


Research Paper, part of a special feature on Quantifying Human-related Mortality of Birds in



A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada


Anna M. Calvert, Christine A. Bishop 1, Richard D. Elliot 1, Elizabeth A. Krebs 1, Tyler M. Kydd

2, Craig S. Machtans 2 and Gregory J. Robertson 1


1 Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate,

2 Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service




Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different

sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We

synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human

activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature.

We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale

mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these

estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality

from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected

group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed

annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and

collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest

industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources

such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a

national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting

that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread

across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while

industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia.

Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related

impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality

in terms of species involved, potential for population-level effects, and the cumulative effects of mortality

across the landscape. Effort is still required to improve these estimates, and to guide conservation efforts

to minimize direct mortality caused by human activities on Canada’s wild bird populations. As avian

mortality represents only a portion of the overall impact to avifauna, indirect effects such as habitat

fragmentation and alteration, site avoidance, disturbance, and related issues must also be carefully



Key words: bird mortality; cats; collisions; human impacts; incidental take; industry; population effects



January 27, 2011


Solving URBAN COYOTE Conflicts



Gates Wildlife Control is currently undertaking the following community organized approach to discourage coyotes from roaming within a neighbourhood. Since its introduction two and a half weeks ago, coyote sightings have gone from a daily occurrence to only two within the last week. Pictures, taken by a resident, are available.


For more information call Brad Gates at 416.750.9453



Solving URBAN COYOTE Conflicts


A Community Organized Wildlife Management Approach


Coyotes are becoming more frequent visitors to neighbourhoods in Southern Ontario, whereas in the past they preferred rural environments. They have migrated into our cities to live off “human provided” food sources and over time have learned to be less fearful of people. To reverse this trend and force the coyote to retreat to its more natural habitat, removing all potential food sources is the number one priority.


Most coyote sightings occur during winter months as these relatively shy animals can roam within residential areas without being confronted by people. This is why most coyote reports and conflicts occur from December through March. Once the milder spring weather settles in and we spend more time outside, most coyotes will then return to forested areas to avoid human contact. However, if the draw to food is irresistible, it could become an unwanted year-round neighbour.


There is public concern that coyotes may approach young children or pets. While it is unlikely that a coyote would be attracted to children, caution should be exercised just the same. As to pets, the coyote could view cats and small dogs as a food source. Large dogs may be seen as competition for food and the coyote may advance aggressively towards them. Therefore, it is always a good idea to keep an eye on your pet while it is outside.


Listed below are some proactive steps that can be easily implemented:



    Do not feed wild animals


    Do not feed pets outside


    Remove bird feeders since coyotes are attracted to bird seed, birds, squirrels etc.


    Use green bins for food waste instead of “odour” producing backyard composters


    Keep all household garbage inaccessible


    Place garbage at the curb in the morning of pickup


    Do not leave small children unattended outside


    Do not allow pets to run freely, keep them on a leash


    Keep cats and smaller dogs inside or within sight


    Remove brush and dense weeds around property as coyotes may use it for protective cover  


    If you see a coyote, wave your arms aggressively, make loud noises and throw objects towards it. If the coyote does not retreat, back up slowly.…do not turn your back and attempt to run away.


If every member of the community is committed to follow these steps then a noticeable reduction in conflicts from all wildlife species will result.


Brad Gates, B.Sc.
Owner / President
416.750.9453 / 1.877.750.9453


(reprinted with permission.)


May 26, 2009


RE:      Bats: White Nose Syndrome – Information for Wildlife Rehabilitators


I am writing to let you know about a possible Ontario case of white nose syndrome, a condition linked to bat mortality in the northeastern United States.


As a result of the spread of this syndrome in the U.S., the Ministry of Natural Resources has been monitoring bat habitats. We have identified bats that appear to show symptoms in a cave in eastern Ontario. Laboratory testing is now underway to identify whether this condition is present.


The Ministry of Natural Resources is concerned due to the significant mortality being observed in the United States’ bat populations.  Bats, like all species, are an important part of Ontario’s biodiversity


As a precaution before testing is completed, we are notifying individuals who are likely to enter caves or come into contact with bats over the next few weeks.


There is no known human health risk associated with white nose syndrome in bats.  The syndrome has been circulating through caves in the northeastern U.S. for more than two years.  Thousands of people have visited some of these caves and no illnesses have been reported.


Due to the potential impact on bat populations, we are asking the public to refrain from entering all non-commercial caves and abandoned mines where bats may be present to prevent possible transmission of the condition to other locations.


We encourage wildlife rehabilitators to report unusual bat mortality to your local Ministry of Natural Resources office or the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre at 1-866-673-4781.


Wildlife Rehabilitators are valuable sources of information on the health of wildlife.  The Ministry has developed a series of specific precautionary measures for rehabilitators to implement in order to help minimize the spread.  Those suggested measures are enclosed with this letter.


For more information about White Nose Syndrome, please read the enclosed fact sheet. [see below]


We will notify you of the results of the testing once they are available. If you have any questions or concerns in the meantime, please contact your local Ministry of Natural Resources office.


Deb Stetson

Manager Wildlife Section

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources




The following considerations are for wildlife rehabilitators prior to transportation of live bats:

  1. Live bats should not be directly handled by the general public.  Encourage them to transfer bat(s) to a secure box with lid using objects that can be cleaned and disinfected or saturated with disinfectant and discarded in the trash.

  2. Place the transport box inside another clean box or bag before placing it inside the vehicle to transport to the rehab facility.  Ask the public to clean off their shoes with water and/or 10% bleach disinfectant prior to leaving their property in the transport vehicle or ask the public to transfer the bat to you outside of your bat care facility.

  3. Do not open the transport box to examine the bats until you are inside the dedicated bat quarantine room (see Quarantine, Isolation and Handling Section).

  4. If selected individuals are identified to pick up and transport sick bats reported by the public to rehab facilities, these individuals should follow strict cleaning and disinfection protocols (see below) of their vehicles following each transport event if WNS is suspected.

    • Primary cleaning should be done first to remove as much organic debris as possible. Debris should be brushed or scraped from the vehicle. Washing of the vehicle should follow. High pressure spraying equipment (i.e., 200 - 1000 psi) may help to clean wood pores, cracks and crevices.

    • The vehicle should always be cleaned from top to bottom. Also be sure to wash the underside of fender wells and the vehicle frame.


    Apply an appropriate disinfectant with a low pressure sprayer and allow its proper contact time to elapse. Iodophor disinfectants are commonly used for vehicle disinfection and are considered to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are also considered more environmentally safe than phenolic disinfectants and more stable than hypochlorite-based compounds.  The interior of the vehicle should also be thoroughly cleaned.


    The following considerations address quarantine, isolation, and handling of possibly infected bats:


  5. The bat quarantine area should be a separate, contained room dedicated to only housing WNS-suspect bats.  Outside flight-conditioning cages should be kept away from other species pens and separated from each other by a minimum of 20 ft.

  6. Once an animal enters the quarantine room, it should be considered exposed to WNS if other bats are present and not be returned to the general patient population. 

  7. Stock all necessary animal care supplies you will need inside the bat quarantine room so that you will not have to repeatedly enter and exit this area once inside.  If possible, have someone from outside the room bring any forgotten item to place just inside the door so you do not have to exit the room once bat handling has begun.  Ideally, there should be a dedicated set of supplies that are only used in this room.  When it is necessary to remove items from the room for thorough cleaning and disinfection, do not mix these items with other supplies from outside the room.  Clean and disinfect quarantine room items separately from the rest of facility supplies, including laundry.

  8. All bats entering a rehab facility should be held in quarantine for a minimum of 30 days before being transferred to a pre-release flight cage.  Any individual bat or group of bats collected from the same location (within 1 km) AND same time period (3 weeks) can be housed together upon admission. 

  9. DO NOT house bats collected from different locations (greater than 1km apart) together at any point during the rehabilitation process.  Each quarantine group will require its own pre-release flight cage.

  10. Bats received from known WNS affected areas should be housed in a separate, contained area (separate room) from all other animals.  If WNS–suspect bats cannot be isolated from other animals under one’s care in a separate room, then bats should not be accepted as patients.

  11. Tree bats should NOT be housed at the same facility as those caring for cave dwelling bats such as little browns, big browns, northern long-ears, or eastern pipistrelles from areas where WNS is suspected or confirmed.

  12. Bats from known WNS affected sites should be handled only after other bat patients have been handled to reduce the risk of cross-contamination.

  13. Bats should only be handled using disposable exam gloves and wearing dedicated, protective clothing (i.e.: coveralls, smock/scrubs, Tyvek suit, rain gear) that should be removed prior to exiting the room.  Disposable shoe covers or rubber boots that can be clean and disinfected are recommended foot wear when inside bat housing areas.  Launder protective clothing according to protocol at least once weekly or whenever they become soiled.  It is highly recommended that personnel working inside the bat quarantine shower upon exiting the room/flight cages and before they handle any other patients in the main facility.

  14. Animal cages should be located as far from the entry/exit doors as possible and away from blowing fans/vents to reduce the risk of aerosolization of fungal spores and contamination outside of the quarantine room.

  15. Limit the number of people who have access to the bat isolation room and pre-flight cages.

  16. Disinfectant foot baths should be used upon exiting any room/flight cage area housing bats to reduce the risk of unintentional transmission of condition to outside the bat holding room.  Use a boot brush to wash all upper and lower surfaces of boots while standing in the bath.  Boots can then be allowed to air dry and removed at the room entrance.  Bath changing frequency depends on the type of disinfectant but should be changed out whenever it becomes dirty if prior to the scheduled replacement.





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